Determined by the course of the Nile. The southern part of the country is known as Upper Egypt – the northern region from Cairo to the Mediterranean comprising Lower Egypt. At its heart are Luxor and Karnak, which together formed Thebes, modern name Luxor, the national capital at the height of the empire, around 1500 BC.
Here are the great temples. A cross the Nile on the west bank, carved out of the rock in the valley of the kings, are the tombs of the pharaohs, where the treasure of king Tutankhamun was discovered.
Excursions north and south of Luxor take you to other major sanctuaries built by the pharaohs.